ABOUT THE INTERFACE
When you open or create a file, you will be able to
seamlessly switch between these modules to build or modify the model
input parameters, run the simulations, and display results.
The Display Control Buttons
The ability to quickly and easily switch between plan view and
cross-section display of the model is a powerful feature that allows
the user to gain a better perspective on the three-dimensional aspects
of the model input parameters and simulation results.
The Navigator Cube
The Navigator Cube provides a three dimensional schematic
representation of the model grid and layers. This navigator cube
provides a quick visual reference of your active position within the
model domain. Also, the active mouse location (X,Y,Z model co-ordinates
and I, J, K grid coordinates) are interactively displayed below the
navigator cube as you move the mouse around the screen.
The Cell Inspector is used to inspect selected model parameter
values on a cell-by-cell basis. Model parameters that may be viewed in
the Cell Inspector include:
- Grid Position
- Model Position
- World Position
- Properties (Kx, Ky, Kz, Specific Yield, Specific Storage, Effective Porosity, Initial Head, and Initial Concentration values)
- Boundary Conditions
BUILDING THE MODEL
Improved project creation wizard helps you to choose the optimal
numeric engines to meet your project objectives. You can also import
MODFLOW-2000, MODFLOW-96, and MODFLOW-88 data sets.
Site Map Layers
Load site maps and overlay on your model. Supported formats included
AutoCAD (.DXF), Shapefiles (.SHP), and Raster images (.BMP, .JPG, .GIF).
Visual MODFLOW Premium allows you to rotate the model domain over the
site map (.DXF or .BMP format) to align the model grid with the site
characteristics and groundwater flow direction. The finite difference
grid can be modified by adding, deleting, moving and automatically
refining rows, columns and layers.
Automatic Grid Smoothing
It is important to design the model grid with proper grid spacing
to give you the level of detail needed, while maintaining the numerical
stability you need for the solution to converge. Automatic grid
smoothing is used to identify and fix regions of the grid which are
Importing Layer Elevations
Since most aquifers are not 'flat' layers, Visual MODFLOW Premium
allows you to import layer surface data from ASCII (X,Y,Z), Surfer
(GRD), USGS DEM (.DEM), ESRI (.GRD), MapInfo (.GRD). Import and
interpolate layer elevation data from XYZ ASCII files (TXT), MS Access
Database (MDB), MS Excel (XLS), and ESRI Point Shape files (SHP).
Grid Cell Elevation Editor
This tool allows you to modify the individual elevations of each
cell using an array editor to modify the elevation value. The cell
elevations can also be modified in cross-section using 'drag-and-drop'
methods to stretch or compress a cell thickness.
Pumping wells or injection wells can be added, deleted, copied or
moved using the intuitive well edit tools that allow you to graphically
delineate the well screen interval and enter or import real-time
pumping schedules from an ASCII text file. For sites with many pumping
wells, Visual MODFLOW Premium can also import all relevant pumping well
Import wells from .txt, .vc, .shp, .xls and .mdb files.
Multiple well screens for a single well are easily accommodated
while the pumping rate distribution between layers is automatically
calculated based on the transmissivity of the layers through which it
Visual MODFLOW Premium is the only MODFLOW modeling environment
that allows you to assign multi-level observation wells, just like ones
you have in the field. In addition, Visual MODFLOW is the only modeling
software package that allows you to group the observation points into
one or more observation groups. This grouping feature is used for
interpreting the calibration data for an isolated section(s) of your
Visual MODFLOW Premium separates the model properties into two distinct categories:
physical model properties affecting the groundwater flow simulation.
Flow properties include; hydraulic conductivity (Kx, Ky, and Kz),
specific storage (Ss), specific yield (Sy), porosity and initial heads.
physical and chemical model properties affecting the fate, migration
and degradation of a contaminant plume in groundwater, or adsorbed to
the soil. Transport properties include; dispersion (Dx, Dy and Dz),
bulk density, distribution coefficient (Kd), decay constants, initial
Import property zones from ESR1 polygon (.SHP) files.
Properties can be interpolated from XYZ ASCII files (TXT), MS Access
Database (MDB), MS Excel (XLS), and ESRI Point Shape files (SHP).
Interpolation options include Natural Neighbor, Kriging, and Inverse
MODFLOW boundary conditions supported by Visual MODFLOW Premium include
both steady-state and transient Constant Heads, Rivers, General Heads,
Drains, Recharge and Evapotranspiration. The Horizontal Flow Barrier
package is also supported.
Visual MODFLOW Premium also supports all contaminant transport boundary
conditions available for the latest versions of MT3D including MT3DMS
for multi-species transport, and RT3D for reactive transport and
natural attenuation simulation. These include constant, recharge, or
evapotranspiration concentration, and point source.
For transient simulations, real-time schedules of boundary condition
values can be entered directly or imported into the time schedule from
an ASCII text file. Recharge and evapotranspiration boundary conditions
can be imported from ESRI polygon shapefiles.
Forward or backward tracking particles can be easily assigned
for determining advective transport, preferred flow pathways and
delineating well capture zones. Visual MODFLOW Premium’s intuitive
graphical tools allow you to easily assign single particles, lines of
particles and a circle of particles anywhere in your model domain.
Zone Budget package allows you to produce zone-to-zone flow summaries
for regions of interest in your model domain. Define zone budget flow
observations, such as baseflow to a stream, or flux across a boundary,
which can be used for calibrating the groundwater flow model against
data other than just head measurements. Zone budget observations can be
included in WinPEST.
Visual MODFLOW Premium now integrates Enviro-Base Pro - an
all-in-one database designed to house a variety of referenced property
information used when developing groundwater models. Enviro-Base Pro
enables you to consolidate your technical references into one package
that can be easily launched, searched and updated.
RUNNING THE SIMULATION
The Run Settings
Using Visual MODFLOW, you can easily set up a batch file to run
several models in succession. This powerful feature allows you to
create multiple versions on the same model and run them while you are
doing other tasks including:
- Initial head estimates
(import from ASCII or Surfer, or previous run). Option to calculate
VCONT from ground elevation or initial heads
- Number of time-steps and time-step multiplier
- Solver selection and convergence settings
- Recharge layer settings
- Layer-types (e.g. confined, unconfined)
options, including option to maintain a minimum saturated thickness for
dry cells and to specify a head value in these cells equivalent to the
cell bottom elevation.
- Anisotropy option
MT3D run settings include:
- Initial concentrations (import from ASCII or Surfer)
- Solver and advection package settings (UFD, TVD, MOC, MMOC, HMOC)
- Simulation output times
For the advanced users of MODFLOW, you can substitute your own
manually created input data files for any MODFLOW by using the Advanced
Settings. The Advanced Settings allows you to specify which files you
will use from Visual MODFLOW Premium, and which files you will
Visual MODFLOW Premium also now allows you to easily set up a batch
file to run several models in succession. This is a very powerful
feature that allows you to create several versions of the same model
and then run the models while you are doing other tasks.
The Win32 MODFLOW Suite
Visual MODFLOW Premium includes the Win32 MODFLOW Suite with
MODFLOW-2000, MODPATH, Zone Budget, MT3DMS and RT3D compiled to run as
true Windows, 32-Bit applications. This unique and powerful modeling
utility actually provides you with the ability to control the numerical
solution process by manipulating the solver parameters and convergence
criteria while the solution is in progress. In addition, it provides a
real-time graphical display of the solution convergence data and a
detailed graphical summary of the Zone Budget results.
After each successful run has completed, the Win32 MODFLOW Suite
automatically produces all of the necessary files required for you to
analyze and interpret the results, and produce full-color,
report-quality graphical presentations using Visual MODFLOW Premium’s
post-processing graphical features.
The USGS SEAWAT 2000 engine has now been included in Visual MODFLOW
Premium, allowing modeling of variable density flow such as seawater
intrusion modeling problems. SEAWAT combines a flow code (MODFLOW) with
a solute-transport code (MT3DMS) to form a single program that solves
the coupled flow and solute-transport equations. It formulates flow
equations using mass conservation instead of volume conservation
The SEAWAT Engine has also been integrated with the WinPEST parameter optimization component of Visual MODFLOW Premium.
MGO - Modular Groundwater Optimizer
Modular Groundwater Optimizer is a simulation optimization software
system, that can be used to reduce the costs associated with installing
and operating a pump-and-treat remediation system. MGO code can be
applied with no or minor modification to a variety of groundwater
resource management issues and other types of remediation systems such
as bioremediation, optimization of groundwater pump-and-treat systems.
GMG Solver Implementation
The new Geometric Multigrid Solver (GMG) solver from USGS has been
integrated with the MODFLOW-2000 and SEAWAT-2000 Engines. GMG is based
on the geometric multigrid solver method. The GMG solver has been
demonstrated to greatly reduce model run times relative to other
solvers using a comparable amount of memory.
SAMG Solver Update
The latest version of the Algebraic Multigrid Methods for Systems
(SAMG) solver, optimized for MODFLOW, has been implemented. The SAMG
solver has been demonstrated to be 3 to 11 times faster than the
traditional PCG solver for medium sized models, and even faster for
large models containing one million or more grid cells.
MNW - Multi-Node Well
The simulation of pumpage by wells is a fundamental and widely used
feature of ground-water models such as MODFLOW. Visual MODFLOW’s new
addition, the Multi-Node Well Package, is designed to help simulate
wells with well screens that span multiple layers. Now you can
accurately simulate pumping wells screened in multiple aquifers.
MIKE 11, developed by DHI, is a world-recognized surface
water modeling package designed for simulating the hydrodynamic
conditions found in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and irrigation canals.
Visual MODFLOW Premium and MIKE 11 are now available as a fully
coupled, groundwater and surface water simulation environment. This
impressive combination represents the only truly conjunctive
groundwater/surface water model combining USGS MODFLOW 2000 and DHI’s
MIKE 11. Ideally suited for:
- Analyzing the hydraulic connection between rivers, streams, and aquifer systems
- Determining groundwater base-flow and potential impacts to ecologically sensitive areas
- Calculating infiltration rates from surface water to groundwater during rainfall events
- Developing comprehensive watershed management plans
MODFLOW-SURFACT is a three-dimensional finite-difference flow and
transport program containing many advancements and improvements over
the standard public-domain versions of MODFLOW.
With more robust solution methods and enhanced simulation
capabilities for handling complex saturated/unsaturated subsurface flow
and transport processes, MODFLOW-SURFACT is specifically designed to
address the many limitations and short-comings of the standard MODFLOW
Use MODFLOW-SURFACT when simulating:
- Multiple water tables, or perched water table systems
- Steep water table gradients crossing multiple model layers
- Over-pumped wells screened across multiple model layers
- Surface water infiltration through the vadose zone to the water table
- Large water table fluctuations causing desaturation/ resaturation of grid cells
- Soil vapor flow through the unsaturated zone
DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING RESULTS
In order to get the most out of the model that you build, it is
critical that you have the tools necessary to properly analyze the
Contouring and Color Maps
- Heads, drawdown and multi-species concentrations
- Water table elevations/depth and net recharge
- Head difference between layers and flux between layers
High-quality color shaded contouring is also available for creating presentation quality color maps of all contoured results.
Flow Velocity Vectors and Pathlines
Visual MODFLOW Premium displays flow velocity vectors and flow
pathlines. Flow velocity vectors can be used to effectively illustrate
the direction and magnitude of groundwater flow velocity throughout the
Export model display to Raster image format (.BMP, .JPG, .TIF, .PNG, .TIF), or AutoCAD (.DXF) in model or world co-ordinates
Export contour lines, velocity vector maps, and pathline locations to ESRI Shapefile (.SHP) in model or world co-ordinates
Export a wide variety of gridded data to ASCII .TXT, Surfer .GRD, or TecPlot (.DAT)
Visualization using VMOD 3D-Explorer
To achieve an in-depth understanding of your model, and to effectively
present the model results to clients or the general public, we’ve
incorporated powerful two and three dimensional visualization and
animation tools through the VMOD 3D-Explorer.
- Create contour/color maps of model properties and simulation results
- Present graphical summaries of global and local mass budgets
model calibration plots and statistical summaries including mean error,
absolute mean error, standard deviation, and many more!
- Full control of map overlays - save your overlay configurations and view only the overlays you require!
- Display 3D pumping wells and observation wells
- Represent soil property zones and boundary conditions in 3D
- Render high resolution 3D volumetric contaminant plumes
- Create irregular shaped cross-sections
- 3D pathlines with time markers
- Define 3D cut-away regions
sequential degradation of contaminant plumes and save into AVI file
format for use in Microsoft PowerPoint presentations!
Mass Budgets for Flow and Transport
Visual MODFLOW Premium produces detailed tabular and graphical reports
of the mass balances for both the flow and mass transport simulations.
These reports provide global and local summaries of the mass inflows
and outflow from the system, or from a localized region of the model.
Visual MODFLOW Premium prints full-color, high-resolution graphics
to any printer or plotter supported by Windows. The graphical display
of the simulation results and/or input files can be printed in portrait
or landscape format as a full-page image or with a title block that
describes the details of the model and the results being displayed.
Color-shaded contours can be printed with or without a color legend.
Visual MODFLOW Premium also prints the on-screen display to several
graphics file formats and exports results to ASCII files in two or
three dimensional format.
CALIBRATING THE MODEL
WinPEST has been seamlessly integrated into Visual MODFLOW Premium
to allow you to conveniently select the model parameters you want to
optimize, and then easily launch the built-in WinPEST application
WinPEST not only modifies the MODFLOW input data files, it also
modifies and updates the Visual MODFLOW Project data files. This makes
it much more practical and convenient to re-load your model files once
the automated calibration procedure is completed.
Supported parameters for a PEST simulation include flow properties and
recharge. You can include head and/or concentration observations, and
zone budget observations in the objective function.
During PEST execution, you can view a number of useful pieces of
information for displaying and interpreting the PEST simulation
results, many of them in real-time graphical form. You can also see how
PEST adjusted the values of the parameters during the optimization
In all of these plots, Right-Clicking on the graphs and selecting
Properties will allow you to alter the appearance of the plots.
Tools for Manual Calibration
An extensive set of built-in model calibration plotting utilities
and statistical calculations help you properly evaluate the modeling
results and interpret the calibration data. Comprehensive calibration
plotting utilities and statistical summaries provide you with all the
graphical interpretation tools you need to properly and thoroughly
analyze the model calibration data.
Visual MODFLOW allows you to assign multi-level observation wells
and group the observation points for isolated analysis of local model
These statistics can be calculated for all observations, or
just for selected groups of observation points (as defined by the user).
- Mean Error
- Mean Absolute Error
- Standard Error of the Estimate
- Root Mean Error
- Normalized Root Mean Error
All plots can be exported to common image format (.BMP, .JPG,
.TIF, .PNG), and the plot data can be exported to .ASCII for further
- Scatter plot of calculated vs. observed data
- Histogram of calibration residuals
- Time-series plot of calculated and observed data
- Time-series plot of calibration statistics
- Bubble plot of calibration residuals
on Windows 2000 SP4, Windows XP Pro SP2, Windows Vista (Business,
Enterprise, and Ultimate), and Windows XP 64 bit version
Main GUI layout with controls and navigator cube
Cell inspector showing input and results
Use the grid cell elevation editor to define model layers
Display pumping wells and observation well in 3D Explorer
Create distributed conductive zones from points data
Define river boundary conditions and display on a site map
Define a line or circle of forward or backward particles
View progress of simulation engines with Win32 Suite
Display colour shading or contours of heads and concentrations
Render color flood maps or contours in 3D Explorer
Contour layer elevations in 3D Explorer
Display fence diagrams and contaminant plume as Isosurface in 3D Explorer
View zone budget mass balance
Display plot of correlation coefficient matrix in WinPEST
Plot weighted sensitivity for parameters in WinPEST
Display plots of calculated vs. observed heads